The word "Diamond" originally comes from the Greek word "Adamas" which is used to describe any hard material. Diamond is a crystallized mineral, essentially composed of carbon.
Carat weight:Describing the weight of a gemstone, not to be confused with KARAT. A carat is 1/140th of an ounce; each carat is further divided into POINTS.
Clarity:The importance and the visibility inclusions determine the clarity of a diamond. Inclusions are all kinds of internal imperfections, formed before, during or after crystallization of the diamond.
Colour:The colour of the diamond also ascertains its value. It's judged on a scale of A to Z, with A being exceptionally white and the M to Z being tinted.
Cut:The word is synonymous to "the making": a combination of operations (cleaving, sawing, bruiting, polishing) resulting in the shape of a diamond. These may have different forms and various styles : rose cut, brilliant cut, mixed cut and so on.
Fancy shapes:The word "fancy" refers to any cutting style other than round brilliant cut, rose and single cut. The most popular fancy shapes are the marquise cut, pear shape, oval cut, heart shape, emerald shape and princess cut.
Brilliant:A round diamond is the most popular cut for diamonds. It is based on a mathematical calculation in which 58 facets are placed on a diamond by polishing. The best stones follow the formula most closely and reflect the most light.
Coloured Gemstones:A term used to describe all gemstones, in place of the vague and somewhat negative term, 'semi-precious'. These stones are precious in their own right, and may even be more valuable than ordinary specimens of those know as precious. Craft jewellers tend to use unusual coloured stone, either dear, faceted stones such as turquoise, agate. These stones may be FAACETED or CABOCHON cut, depending on the quality of the gemstone material as well as the design they are intended for.
Culet:The facet placed at the tip of a diamond. It is known as the 58th facet
Emerald Cut:Also known as rectangular cut, a geometric shape in which two sides of a stone are shorter than the other two.. the result, in diamonds, is an elegant, but quiet stone. It demands a fine quality piece of ROUGH because there is little chance of hiding INCLUSIONS.
Engraving:A method of decorating the surface of metal or a gemstone from the front by incising a design into the surface. Small amounts of metal or gemstone material are removed in the process.
Faceting:The cutting of a stone in which tiny planes are polished onto the surface to reflect light. Placement of facets is crucial in diamond polishing because light plays such a large part in a diamond's brilliance. In coloured gemstones, placement of facets is done more for artistic reasons.
Fancy colour:A term covering diamonds with strong body colour. Diamonds occur naturally in a wide range of colours from yellow to pink, blue and green. The more intense the colour, the more desirable. While an off-white diamond is far less valuable than one with no body colour, an intense canary yellow diamond is highly desired. Pink diamonds were quite rare until the advent of diamond mining in Australia. That country's argyle mine produces a small but steady supply of intense purple-pink diamond. Two of the most famous diamonds in the world are fancies – the Tiffany Diamond is a canary while the Hope Diamond is a deep blue.
Pure gold, 100% gold, 24 karat gold that is at least 99.5% pure as it comes from the refinery.